China Arsenal

Friday, February 5, 2010

Stealth version of J-11 fighter



Related link: Stealth JH-7 aircraft

Thursday, January 21, 2010

J-14 stealth fighter: air-to-air missiles



Sunday, January 17, 2010

Concept flying aircraft carrier





Thursday, January 14, 2010

Future concept advanced tank

China's new concept tank technology features:
The world's first truly low-type unmanned turret, all cars 2. Driver 1, respectively, and fire control staff a person. 120 mm smooth-bore guns for the gun. Bullet library with people separated from the central isolation with armor plates. Turret upload a set, bullet-in-One system. 4 dual 12.7 mm Defense Cao Bang faster gun, right and left lower part of a 40 mm grenade launchers. Bullet on the system is equipped with a small-to-air search radar, a, photoelectric tracking system, a set of.
Heat gun turret on the left side of the system showed a similar target tracking device.

Configuration Features:
Vehicle while in motion can be bullet-to-air defense system to the automatic mode. Such movement can compensate for vehicle-to-air defense gaps. Into the street fighting, they can turn to manual mode, above the 12.7 mm gun and 40 mm grenade fast for ground staff to provide adequate fire support. 4 12.7 mm Gaoping dual fast guns, air defense from the 1500 meters, height of 1000 meters. Small-to-air search radar air search distance of 8,000 meters.

Advisers (design): Shi fu (Tong-Xu), Digitalunit ge ge, Xue qian xun, Ji fu 1143



Monday, January 11, 2010

H-6 bomber being used for space rocket-plane tests







Saturday, January 9, 2010

Japanese intelligence operations

For a long time, the Japanese intelligence agencies of the security system in Japan, plays an important role, but against China's military collection in the overall information system also occupies a prominent position. Targeted for decades to collect intelligence on China, so that Japan already has a large group of intelligence agencies Among them, the Cabinet Information Bureau of Investigation's "foreign intelligence group," a ministry of defense intelligence headquarters in the strongest. In particular the establishment of the latter, so that Japan's intelligence, but also including countries in the world of military intelligence gathering into a stable, comprehensive status quo, but also changed the post-war Japan heterogeneous information systems, information exchanges and cooperation with the lack of, all into one and so on.

Cabinet Information Bureau of Investigation - high-level intelligence gathering on China

This is a Japanese state-led nature of intelligence agencies, whose role is to gather members of the Cabinet decision-making in particular, political decision-making required information. It consists of the domestic intelligence agencies and other intelligence agencies, state agencies, private companies, social organizations, departments and multi-media collaboration with institutions such as a coalition liaison. While the establishment and small, but China's featured a variety of intelligence gathering. Last year, in February, the Japanese government in a special study of the reform of intelligence agencies "intelligence to strengthen the functions of conferences", in particular an introduction of the Japanese government aimed at strengthening the intelligence gathering and analysis capabilities of the studies, set up a "cabinet of intelligence analysis officer," a level, its composition more for foreign and security sector. Among them, the group responsible for China's problems, the main writing out the assessment of the Chinese government, especially the safety of Chinese military strategy, military movements, weapons and equipment, trends and other content, for the Japanese high-level decision-making. Another news reports, one from the Japanese Foreign Ministry's expert group is also particularly like the Japanese government set up in accordance with the framework of the United Kingdom Junqingliuchu intelligence organizations, and received special education and training agents to the identity of the diplomatic staff sent to target countries, in particular, is the tense and delicate relations with Japan China, Russia and other countries.

Intelligence headquarters

Founded in 1996, the intelligence headquarters of Japan's most open and most direct military intelligence-gathering agencies. The primary object of the reconnaissance, Russia and North Korea, detection methods, including intelligence surveillance, radio reconnaissance, radio-electronic reconnaissance, space reconnaissance, etc., a variety of reconnaissance means. Central Intelligence team from the "central geographic teams" and the "central force" which consists of the "central geographic teams" and the "central force" While the establishment of a number of only 600 people, but the goal is very clear, is to ensure that Japan's Self-Defense Forces operations in the future , especially in response to the Taiwan Strait crisis or emergency, when the peninsula and achieve the war, surveillance and geographic information integration. Reported that they undertake a special mission team did not just textual information, but all areas of direct involvement in China, direct contact with the relevant person or department to obtain vital information.

"The Central Geographic Team" responsible for collection of geographical information, "central information team" is responsible for the collection, translation of foreign military intelligence. From the operational point of view, intelligence gathering on China, not only through military means blatant military reconnaissance, intelligence headquarters in secret by the assignment, but also to non-governmental exchanges, the name of scientific exploration to engage in intelligence-gathering activities in China. As in last year and this year, there are several Japanese scholars in the field of China's Xinjiang accurate detection employed although it is related to the University side and a number of social groups, such as Japan and the integration of Earth Environmental Science Research Institute, but there are media analysis, the current Japanese R & D departments have many have a military background, mostly for the Japanese military to provide indirect military services. In Japan on China's geological exploration, for example, the precise coordinates for the Japanese-guided weapon systems provide important data can be directly implemented for the future long-range precision attack on service in Japan on China's national security constitutes a serious threat.

In last year's successful launch of China's "Shenzhou" spacecraft, the Japanese quickly set up a "China Information Center", who plunged into the requirements 3 billion yen. According to reports, the Center has specialized in the Japanese mainland radio listening room, monitoring personnel 24 hours a day listening and included Chinese central and local radio programs, and immediately order archive.

In fact, apart from the Japanese government sent officials, a number of close contacts with the Chinese private trading company in Japan, sometimes responsible for China Center and other political, economic intelligence-gathering missions. Japan's most famous "Trade Promotion" for example, that there will be nearly one hundred firms in the world, in China Beijing, Shanghai and other major cities have their own offices or branch offices, and their In addition to the work of business consulting, trade negotiations, the comprehensive collection of Chinese political, economic, military intelligence, but also their important task. As for Japan in China's economic, political and other intelligence gathering activities, companies, trading companies and countless others from different areas of China through various channels to collect valuable information

Space & aviation-based intelligence gathering

So far, based on military and civilian high-level scientific and technological means of reconnaissance, Japan has been formed to own satellites, early warning aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, radar, listening stations, spy satellites and other means of reconnaissance and early warning network, in particular intelligence-gathering system in Japan In the United States, France and other countries with the help of the surrounding area committed to improving the military intelligence-gathering capabilities, the establishment of a large database is fully equipped with the right implementation of China's super-high altitude, air, sea and sea targets of intelligence gathering under the full azimuth, full-time, three-dimensional reconnaissance model, focusing on China's fighter planes, ships and missiles to carry out reconnaissance and intelligence gathering.

In the ultra-high-altitude detection. On the current spy satellites have been launched by the number and quality of view, are the low-altitude satellites in orbit, the detection accuracy. Prior to Japan's "Daily News" has reported that, according to Japan's defense ministry, "the future of Information and Communication Policy" plan, the Japanese in the future in addition to reconnaissance satellite systems, will also use the private communications satellites and television broadcasting satellite to form a complete Image intelligence gathering and transmission networks, thereby expanding the scope of intelligence gathering. In particular, to take full advantage of the United States, "Google" system to be refined for its own purposes, its coverage can be achieved over 75% of China's regions, covering the East Asia and the Middle East, and even some African countries in order to, when something happens in the periphery, can form a rear support for U.S. forces can also be run independently, self-contained and not be controlled by others. Analysts pointed out that Japan's satellite detection system, more than half against China, forming a multi-period, the collection of weather information system. In the air reconnaissance, the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force equipped early warning aircraft, China's coastal waters can be 24-hour surveillance, focusing on the Chinese navy and the missile deployment, to collect intelligence.

On the ground and maritime surveillance, using a ground radar stations, satellite-based workstations and stations. In recent years, the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force background at the "jack" was, "Bai Ling" was, "takyo" No. "Akihiro" was tracking ship, often the name of Scientific Expedition to the East China Sea, detecting the banner and open in China Sea activities, increase surveillance efforts in China's neighboring waters. To tie in with activities in the region, Japan will, in its southwestern Fukue Island, a new set of electromagnetic detection system, designed to monitor China's military activities, the monitoring system and the establishment of Miyako Island, the previous listening posts into one, forming Japan's new generation of China electromagnetic detection system so that Japan can right from the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea south of the Chinese ships effective electromagnetic surveillance. Specifically used for Chinese warships and aircraft communication signal capture and processing of electronic monitoring systems will also be officially opened in 2008.

Under water, to the current Japan's advanced submarine technology, can the formation of China's most realistic intelligence collection capability is extremely powerful, or even by the Japanese media said that this is one of the most powerful intelligence to obtain power, is Japan's unique advantage. In the human means, as early as in 2000, the Japanese military attache stationed in China have increased The limit, the formation of land, sea and air self-defense, three Self-Defense Forces were three official system. From 1999 onwards, the Japanese Embassy in affairs officer with a staff dedicated to intelligence-gathering missions.

"The Central Intelligence Team" under the jurisdiction of four different panel of 10 people, including a group specifically for China, the main task is the development in China "informants", the use of "informants" to collect intelligence on China, but in peacetime, the specialized responsible through "contacts with foreigners," the field "interviews" with local residents and politicians, to gather first-hand information. Last year in October, the Japanese also proposed this year in the United States set up a "permanent liaison office of intelligence," and also the first time in Japan after the war overseas, the establishment of permanent intelligence agencies. Among them, "East Asian group" focus is on China to develop China-based journalists, academics, and private parties, let them join the overseas contingent of Japanese intelligence officers. These people will try to contact with the local staff to establish a broad network of relationships, for the Japanese government Chinese intelligence gathering. In March of this year, Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Aso of Japan had to spend money to buy the original orphans in China and Japan, China Bo-wen to steal secrets regarding the Open, said: "I think the original Bo-wen to be paid depends on intelligence gathering." Shows that Japan is China's intelligence-gathering related to number of areas, everywhere.

Military expert analysis, the Japanese Defense Ministry to spare no effort to gather a variety of Chinese intelligence, especially military intelligence, military concerned about China's every move, the purpose is very clear, that is, a comprehensive and accurate grasp on the basis of China's military deployment to enhance the Japanese intervention in the region the capacity of the situation, in order to build military power fishing sufficient capital.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

Stealth version JH-7 bomber: concept images



Harbin SH-5 anti-submarine aircraft

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

J-14 aircraft: hi-res images


Saturday, January 2, 2010

Gas-cooled nuclear power reactor for bomber aircrafts

Nuclear-powered bomber, is the dream of strategic air forces of the superpowers, because nuclear-powered bomber, a huge driving force, with virtually unlimited range, does not require frequent refueling, its unparalleled tactical advantage, so in the last century, the United States and the former Soviet Union are in in this regard has made a bold attempt. Reactor technology, due to time constraints, the aircraft can not carry hundreds of tons of reactor and protective devices, coupled with the reactor at the time the safety can not guarantee, therefore, these early efforts were not successful. However, the nuclear-powered bomber, a huge range of power and the advantages of military strategist of the brain is not echoed at all times.

As in recent years, advances in reactor technology, reactor core getting smaller and smaller, the structure becomes compact and reasonable, and security also has a tremendous progress, China's air-cooled reactor is in the security and efficiency has made great strides, legends China's nuclear submarines are ready to apply. These technological advances, re-awakened the dream of China’s nuclear-powered bombers.

Take a look at gas-cooled reactor: As China's gas-cooled reactor uses helium gas as working gas, helium is the inert gas, is more a magical properties, it will not be reactor fuel and radioactive exposure arising from secondary radiation, Therefore, the reactor does not require a loop of pipe to conduct a comprehensive radiation protection, thus greatly reducing the area needed protection, radiation protection is limited to the reactor core body itself, which makes the necessary protection of lead-cooled reactors, pressurized water reactor and the geometric metal heap must have been considerably lower weight and volume of the reactor have substantially decreased their use in aviation possible. This is a huge performance advantage, is the other types of reactors can not be compared.

China's gas-cooled reactor using two turbine to heat the reactor is converted into mechanical energy, the first helium gas in the reactor was heated to nearly a thousand degrees, into a high temperature and pressure of the hot helium, these high temperature and pressure of the helium directly into the turbine steam turbine can be 40% of the heat energy into mechanical energy, helium temperature down to 400 ~ 500 degrees; Then, in the temperature of the helium gas into the heat exchanger loop, 80% of the helium heat exchanger circuit in the years, the hot water into a high-temperature saturated steam, steam turbine steam turbine to promote once again the heat into mechanical energy. Transformation allows the two gas-cooled reactor power system's overall thermal efficiency of more than 60%. Turbine steam turbine or compressor can be directly promote the propeller fan, push forward bombers.

Gas-cooled reactors also have drawbacks, that is, the cooling needs of low-temperature helium and compressed, and, helium storage of relatively large volume. For submarines, this is a relatively difficult problem that requires compression before storage and recycling, but for large aircraft, this is not troublesome, low-density helium gas can be a great package to store, due to the low density of helium, Gas storage can significantly offset the buoyancy package weight. As the aircraft usually fly in the stratosphere, temperatures in the stratosphere - 20 to 40 degrees below zero, through the air, can be effectively the waste heat of nuclear power systems for cooling, which is also conducive to nuclear power system in the normal operation of the aircraft.

It can be seen that the current gas-cooled reactor power system weight than aviation jet engines large, but as technology advances, the weight of the gas-cooled reactor control in 100 tons less than can be achieved. At present, large aircraft carrier oil, is often a need for more than 100 tons, such as A-380, 560 Dun take-off weight among the total 200 tons of oil containing more than the weight of jet fuel even more than the weight of nuclear power systems. Moreover, a large number of fuel consumption, not only generates a huge amount of greenhouse gas emissions, but also has turned itself into a huge incendiary bombs made it necessary to increase the number of safety devices, forming a huge waste weight.

In contrast, the advantages of nuclear power was too obvious, and first of all, a huge and sustained energy that allows the aircraft continuously for many days or even months, flying in the sky, this is the biggest advantage of nuclear power. Only lubricants and expendable parts subject to the restrictions and had to return to the ground maintenance and supplies; nuclear power is not greenhouse gas emissions, will not pollute the atmosphere, much more environmentally friendly than oil-powered. Safety, as long as the reactor will be air-cooled rugged enough to do, even if the crash occurred, as long as the reactor is not damaged, would not have a nuclear pollution, helium is the inert gas, much less fire. U.S. nuclear bombs have occurred in accidents falling from an airplane accident, nuclear safety floor, did not explode, so if properly designed, can guarantee that when the reactor in a complete crash. Even in the fighting were hit by a missile, its viability is also stronger than conventional bombers, because the probability of nuclear-powered bomber fire is much lower than conventional bombers.

Comprehensive above, at present, technical, manufacturing, nuclear-powered aircraft have been not too many technical difficulties. The following is the conceptual changes needed and determination. It can be seen that China's aviation engine technology with a large gap between the West, but in the gas-cooled reactors, China's technological level is a leading, if the gas-cooled reactor technology applied to large aircraft areas, will enable China to achieve unprecedented lead. As the international aviation industry, a lot of restrictions on large commercial aircraft, China can first use of nuclear-powered bombers, Zaochu of super-heavy nuclear-powered strategic bombers.

Imagine if China Zaochu nuclear-powered strategic bombers, will have an unprecedented military superiority, anywhere in the world, China's armed can be reached within 24 hours, in the event of war, regardless of where the enemy, the first time for China to nuclear-powered bomber carrying high-powered weapons to reach the incident and conducted a long cruise to deterrence, if necessary, immediately effective air strikes. This is both flexible, but also a powerful force, and will effectively protect the interests of China in the world. Of course, with nuclear-powered bombers, China can not abandon the development of aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, aircraft carriers, may be much greater in order to combat damaged nuclear-powered bombers maintenance.

"Guilty of the powerful Han who, however far they are", at present, this is only a slogan of the mighty, because of the lack of delivery platform for the global projection, even if China deal with the threat around, in the current strategic approach, it is also not only forbear Fa. No aircraft carrier, no ocean-going fleet, there is no long-range bombers, and no overseas bases, so that China worry about everywhere, even those who only allowed a small nation with China’s subject of ridicule, mockery in every possible way, why, because these guys know that China will only verbal protest, Most diplomatic or economic sanctions, and not directly with their bayonets Tong Jin Xin Wo, so they are not afraid.

Once nuclear power could be bombers, hostile to China if China took the lead in condemning the just possible that they are falling, China’s missiles, bombers have thrown their podium. Internationally, the truth is always the strong and the winner side.

Nuclear deterrent patrol bombers can be used to protect China's global traffic arteries are not a threat to other countries, once the recurrence of similar incidents of anti-Chinese, in a matter of hours, nuclear bombers on the enemy's head appears in the enough of these pairs of countries unfriendly to China become scared.

Monday, December 28, 2009

Radar system to detect F-22 fighter: development in progress

Omni-directional radar warning system to alert pilots have been locked pursuit of missile systems, this equipment is very useful. In the early-the-horizon air combat, many targets have been hit by a missile when the machine did not know what happened because it did not receive a warning or simply no set of equipment. If there is omni-directional radar warning and played a role in the target machine to make at least know to avoid, out of action, the measures taken to interfere with, ultra-horizon air combat power will be greatly reduced. Fighting in the development of the Chinese military planes for the F22 when the anti-stealth radar warning system has made significant progress.

It is said that the old U.S. Air Force F-15, F-16 can not lock on the F-22A alarm led to the F-22A simulated aerial combat 144:0, 241:2 results. The U.S. Navy and Air Force rivalry is, F/A-18 will be able to make an effective warning, said to have thus also simulated air combat "kill" of an F-22A. Therefore think that the old U.S. Navy F-22A found a trick to deal with, they claim that EA-18 is entirely possible to eat set F-22.

All U.S. Navy does not go into details about whether or bragging, but their reasoning at least plausible explanation. If a  Chinese F-7 able to F-22A locking alarm, although it probably cannot be said that you can reverse the  situation, but it can increase the air of uncertainty. An F-22 containing the bomb was a few, and contains a number of oil is, if the F-22 in order to eliminate an F -7 to Kuangzhui one or two hundred kilometers, fired three, four missiles, then the combat effectiveness of his is being reduced.

In fact, the old America's F-22 is also aware of this truth. His passive receivers Alarm System ALR-94 feature is very powerful, APG-77 radar, stealth can be achieved, that is, to track the F-22 occurred in the possibility of radar detection of its position as one in a million.

This possibility is not without. In this world, no unable to crack the ultimate technology, that does not comply with dialectics. If the F-22A to do this, then he opened up a new era in human history of philosophy, and unfortunately he could not. F-22A on the expression of such self-contradictory, on the one hand, APG-77 is so advanced RF management is almost impossible to detect on the other hand, ALR-94 radar warning receiver is so powerful, completely may miss any radar detection, this paradox explains everything just are no absolutes.

Judging from the current situation, intercept F-22A's radar signal and make a timely warning, is a national anti-stealth technology development.

Previously, countries could not find out the radar stealth F-22 to do the tricky and radar technology, which has a relationship to the level of development. This is like World War II, if engaged in less than ENIGMA cipher machine, then the password is difficult to decipher German. Now, the countries active phased array radar technology matures, narrowing the gap with the United States, on this basis, is gradually being worked out related to omni-directional radar warning system. Further, if this radar, the development of omni-directional warning to the United States ALR-94 level, you can combine the optical detection of the F-22 implementation of striking back.

Alarms for the F-22A technology development to what extent, in all countries are confidential, and that the outside world is not easy to detect. Saw the EA-18G the United States itself has such a capacity, a wind gust of France, Europe's EF-2000 from a technical point of view a very strong indicator. In this regard, the old United States is also a guilty conscience and a variety of models with other countries to confront the exercise, in addition to showing off there thoroughly meaning.

In this respect, China is also more or less said to have made a little progress. Since the bet made four generations of machines, whether talking about the other Jian Shi B, or a few, I think, have the right F-22A radar warning is a fundamental capability.

Monday, December 21, 2009

Carrier-based J-10C fighter

J-10C with folded wings concept image - top view

The J-10C carrier-based fighter performance parameters estimated to be: the captain 14.57 meters, wingspan of 8.78 meters, height: 5.3 meters, sweep angle 50-52 degrees, the wing area of 38 square meters, vertical tail area of 8.4 square meters, thrust of 152 kN.

Takeoff and landing roll distance: less than 50 meters
High altitude of the maximum speed: 2.0 Mach
Low maximum speed: 1.2 Mach (1473 km / h)
Maximum ceiling: 18,000 meters
Combat radius: 1,300 km
Maximum range: 3,000 km
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 18.27 thousand kilograms, 6000 kilograms load of bombs, thrust-weight ratio greater than 1.1.
Plug-in 11 (5 under the fuselage, each wing the next three), the largest external fuel tanks 4100 liters (1500 × 2,1100 × 1)

These data indicate that J-10C carrier-based and J-10 package type is almost identical, but thrust from 122 kN to 152 kN, roll distances have been shortened to 50 meters only. Like with the J-10, J-10C carrier-based addition to maintaining the normal level flight, there are enough thrust to meet the needs of the implementation of a variety of motor actions, so that the level of acceleration, climbing, circling, etc. have a larger performance increase, even in the air combat mode effortlessly vertically upwards.

J-10C will be equipped with a weapons system operator is responsible for precision strikes, J-10C can carry more than 4 tons of ammunition, but also equipped with a goal of launching precision-guided munitions pod instructions. This aircraft will probably have ground attack capability.

Sunday, December 20, 2009

JH-7 Attack Aircraft

Since the 1990’s, China's naval power has been in a stage of rapid development, China has been heard the news of a new warship construction service. However, the present case, the Navy's surface ships alone against the Japan Maritime Self-Defense forces to clear some of its inadequacies. Chinese naval fleet is now not enough against the strength of Japan's current "88 fleet," and not against the planned fleet of 90. The last century, the mid to late 90’s, the new fighter-bombers joined the Chinese navy aviation battle. National Day military parade in 1999, when the mysterious aircraft over the re-emergence in Tiananmen Square, the major foreign media have reported: China's "Flying Leopard" turned out to. "Flying Leopard" equipment service greatly improved the Chinese navy's combat capabilities, so that our air force for the first time the Navy has that can be a threat to "88 fleet" as well as the future fleet of 90 air strikes. Japan has related media had significant combat capabilities of China's Flying Leopard layout analysis, was suddenly silent, and the exact cause is unknown, the following analysis we will in the end "Flying Leopard" penetration likelihood of the Japanese fleet. Defensive side - "88 fleet"
      Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Force is a well-trained, well-equipped, with a strong ocean-going comprehensive combat capability of the naval forces. Maritime Self-Defense Force is currently being examined by the "Fleet 88" to "90-ship" team in transition. "88 fleet" of the compiled program, the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force is to defend the 1,000 nautical miles at sea lines of communication to achieve the basic objective of achieving "blockade in defense of" strategies to the former Soviet navy's submarine warfare as the main object, according to naval formation of submarine search and attack tactical vision, the application of operations research analytic method, by modeling calculations, the more optimized anti-submarine fleet into program. The so-called "88 fleet" refers to by 8 destroyers and 8 anti-submarine helicopters pose. The new "88 fleet," the basic formation of the current pattern is: a "white roots" level or "Haruna"-class destroyers, anti-submarine helicopters as a "88 fleet," the command ship, a "tachikaze" level or "flag Wind "-class air defense destroyers (However, if a new air defense destroyer in service are likely to replace their current status), 2" Asagiri "class anti-submarine destroyer, a" King Kong "-class air defense destroyers, three" village rain "level or" high waves "The multi-path-class destroyers (" Village Rain "and" high waves "and added to the large increase in the" 88 fleet, "the overall point of anti-aircraft capacity).
"88 fleet" has a strong fleet air defense capabilities, the formation of surface ships using the sea-air anti-aircraft warfare, multi-layered defense tactics. At present each "88 Fleet" are the attachment has two air defense destroyers, which "King Kong"-class destroyers and the "flag wind" level or "too knife Wind"-class destroyers each one, in the air defense mission as a combat ships in order to equipped with the "Aegis" system, "King Kong"-class destroyers of the most eye-catching.

Formidable offensive capability of JH-7
     Chinese Air Force sent JH-7 "Flying Leopard" improved took part in the exercise, causing the foreign media attention. Sino-Russian joint military exercise in 2007, the modified "Flying Leopard" to have participated in exercises, with unfailing accuracy, outstanding performance and won unanimously praised the media at home and abroad.
     JH -7 is independently developed by the heavy, supersonic, all-weather fighter-bomber, is China's current primary fighter kinds of offensive, known as is China's only a true fighter-bomber. The important feature is low-altitude flight performance is better, can be a long time to low-or low-altitude flying, mainly responsible for stand-off on the sea, and ground all-weather precision strike missions, and has a certain fighter escort capability.
     Taiwan and Hong Kong media reported that the JH-7 "Flying Leopard" developed by the Xi'an Aircraft Industry Company is the People's Liberation Army began the last century, 80 years designed and developed its own medium-sized fighter-bombers, have proven right, the right-ship attack capability, there is " aircraft carrier killers, "said. JH -7 maximum cruise speed of Mach 1.7 times the combat radius of 1650 kilometers, crew 2.
     JH-7 strong attack capabilities. At the lower right side of the forward fuselage with a 23 mm double-barreled guns, 200 rounds Beitan. The whole plane load of bombs 5000 kilograms, with equipment, heavy weight, large-caliber weapons and the ability to be linked to a variety of air-launched missile attitude.
     JH-7 The most important weapon is C-801K/803 anti-ship missiles, with a maximum of four. 2 wing tip pylons can hang Charlie -5 fighting-type air to air missile.

Low altitude penetration causes concern
     In fact, as early as 90 years in the last century "Flying Leopard" initial column loaded Chinese naval air force units, the overseas media once reported them substantially. In particular Japan, are very concerned about the "Flying Leopard" low-level penetration capability. Because the "Flying Leopard" could use sea-skimming flight, low altitude air defense penetration capability of Japan's most advanced "Aegis" ships. "Flying Leopard" capable of launching anti-ship missiles, 150 kilometers, the Japanese "" Aegis "ship" standard -2 "anti-aircraft missile has a range only 73 kilometers, can not deal with the" Flying Leopard. "
     According to Asahi Shimbun, Japan last year held in the East China Sea Fleet of 88 anti-aircraft anti-submarine exercises, there were two "Flying Leopard" hedgehopping break 88 fleet with the "Aegis" air defense system, "Amemura"-class missile destroyers, anti-aircraft range of .
     In the last year the 7th Zhuhai Air Show, the improved version of "Flying Leopard" the first appearance in public. At that time, Taiwan media reported that the " 'Flying Leopard' is China's new generation of bombers, completely independently developed by China, is China's most capable bomber carrying missiles now deployed in China's coastal base, can cover Taiwan, the blockade of its ports" .
     Canada, "Han Defense Review," and even speculated that the improved "Flying Leopard" first to deploy troops in Eastern China Air Force, aims to match and Su -30; by the Su-30MKK responsible for the air, "Flying Leopard" is responsible for land attacks, the North-South balance, deterrence Japan and the United States, making the entire Taiwan Strait, the U.S. military base in Okinawa, the entire Korean peninsula, Japan, Kyushu, Honshu are in a part of the Soviet Union 30MKK and the new "Flying Leopard", within the combat radius. The United States a "strategic" network in June reported that the U.S. side believes that China has used a modified "Flying Leopard" has developed an electronic warfare aircraft.

Low altitude penetration was difficult and JH-7 to take a greater risk
     China's "Flying Leopard" fighter good at low altitude penetration is an advanced technology, with high tactical value. J-bombers can be used at low altitude to avoid radar penetration and attack missions, but also a high risk.
     Experts believe that, in addition to facing the complex terrain obstacles, the main risk is that: First, low altitude penetration, when the pilots field of vision deterioration, visual search has become very difficult to locate; Second, low-altitude penetration of the aircraft structure, intensity, and the pilot's physical strength and energy are higher, and a slight mistake, a small yaw angle will allow planes into terrain; three hours in the event of low altitude penetration failure, there is not enough height and time to re-start and exclusion, and even the ejection are too busy; 4 is difficult to control penetration speed, penetration rate of the Assembly to increase the pilot search, identify and attack ground targets, the aircraft more difficult and reduce the mobility, penetration rate of a small plane would cause jitter, stall. As the low altitude penetration is very difficult for any country the air force are quite dangerous.

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Navy's Z-9C anti-sumarine helicopter: current status

The helicopter industry as a whole due to capacity constraints, China has developed anti-submarine helicopters, the long-standing state of stagnation. Until the mid-90s of the last century, the Chinese Navy, only a limited number of aircraft and the modifications introduced by AS 565 has SA 321Ja antisubmarine capabilities, at a time when the world has more than 50 countries and regions, the number of various types of ship-borne helicopters, more than 2,500 aircraft , of which more than 60% with the implementation of anti-submarine-related tasks. Especially for no large-scale shore-based or ship-based fixed-wing anti-submarine aircraft in terms of countries and regions, anti-submarine helicopters, has become their sole provider of air anti-submarine force. As the Chinese navy in a few decades of the development process of taking the detour too many fields of arrears too much equipment development, coupled with the domestic in basic scientific research is difficult to keep up with new equipment and research and development needs, so China in anti-submarine helicopters the overall technological level and operational efficiency with the U.S. Navy there is a very large gap. Chinese Navy's AS 565 is not only difficult compared to a U.S. Navy's SH-60B, and even and the "Lynx" This weight, compared to a similar size in anti-submarine helicopters, weapons and equipment configuration also has significant gaps. More importantly, the French developed AS 565 mid-80's main purpose is to meet foreign market demand for light-ship-borne anti-submarine helicopters, the French Navy, and are not equipped with their own, so a wide range of technical requirements are constrained, for high-intensity Some powerless at sea anti-submarine warfare, which led to this type of helicopter for export in small quantities. So far, only Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates ordered less than 30 anti-ship type, while the anti-submarine type, including China, is only sold in less than 10.

To sum up, AS 565 difficult to meet the Chinese navy in the late 90's the need, and therefore Z-9C in the development of China's anti-submarine helicopters, requires that the beginning of the main technical and tactical performance higher than the AS 565. However, due to weaker domestic helicopter industry, leading to  a number of subsystems developed for Z-9C delay the progress of the development of the machine speed, resulting in the 2l century, before the onset of difficult to enter the Chinese Navy.

At present, Z-9C anti-submarine helicopters and British and French naval equipment use a lot of "Lynx" anti-submarine helicopters in the vast majority of performance at the same level, its maximum is not small enough to carry sonar buoys, so that it served as antisubmarine defense mission there a great lack of. As an internal equipped with sonar and amplifiers, antennas and anti-submarine helicopter with a contact acoustic detection equipment, sonar buoys may be in the submarine-infested waters by a certain law into the sea, by setting a good program down to a predetermined depth, in order to actively or passively work, according to the submarine speed, quietness, and sonar buoy the hydrological conditions of work, its detection range of submarines can reach 1.5 to 3 km, and anti-submarine helicopters, communication distance of 15 to 20 km. Passive sonar buoys used for a wide range of sea submarine target detection, you can put 3 to 5 pairs of 300 square kilometers of the vast waters effective detection, but can not accurately determine the distance and direction the submarine, it is generally needed and active sonar buoys (or dipping sonar) used in conjunction in order to determine elements of the submarine campaign, Xie calculate the submarine campaign data, determine the program and select the anti-submarine weapons attack attack. It is clear that the role of sonar buoys to the modern anti-submarine warfare is very important. The United States, Europe and the Soviet Union as early as 60 years in the last century began the anti-submarine helicopters, equipped with sonar buoys, after nearly half a century of development, is now dipping sonar and air together account for the modern ship-borne anti-submarine detection equipment in half.

China in the development of sonar buoys had also made gratifying achievements. As early as the mid-60s in the last century, China designing and finalizing SKF 1 a passive omni-directional sonar buoys, 1972, designing and finalizing HF a two-type non-directional sonar buoys, close to the overall performance of 60 mid-level of technology abroad, the main equipment in the Do not the Chinese Navy and the Marine H-1 6 1 5 water anti-submarine aircraft. Into the 90's, along with the internal acoustics, electronics and manufacturing technology continues to improve, develop high-performance sonar buoys are technically no longer exists insurmountable difficulties, which also provides for the modification of Z-9C conditions. As an anti-submarine helicopter Z-9C has limited space inside the fuselage, can not be installed simultaneously in the cabin air dipping sonar and sonar buoys and their launchers, to resolve this contradiction, I believe that is entirely possible by the United States SH-60B / F development ideas to perfect the overall anti-submarine warfare capability of Z-9C. On existing Z-9C, based on the abolition of the air inside the cabin and the associated dipping sonar winches and other devices (keep other airborne radar, weapons and navigation systems), so can install the next 20 to 30 sonar buoys and related control and launchers. Taking into account the filling, use and impact on the body structure, I believe that, like SH-60B used as a  launch the layout of the more desirable side, but also relatively easy to implement. After such a modification would not increase the weight of too much, right Z-9C and structure of the basic flight performance did not particularly large impact. Thus, the Chinese Navy's active-duty and the next generation of surface warships can be a certain percentage of completely mixed two kinds of anti-submarine helicopters, due to both the body structure, the main radar, electronic equipment and weapon systems are basically the same, so it will not increase the logistical support pressure, with a new generation of destroyers and convoy ships fully meet the present stage around China's naval modernization of submarines against the requirements.


China succeeded in a number of imported technology to absorb and digest, according to their own requirements, the use of characteristics and threats had targeted improvements, an end to the Z-9C become a feature of modern anti-submarine helicopters, you can perform a modern anti-submarine warfare the task light anti-submarine helicopters, which will be the development of China's ship-borne anti-submarine helicopters leave an impressive mark in the course.

In the large ocean-going warships are still less the case, light such as an anti-submarine helicopters Z-9C better suited to the requirements of the Chinese Navy, the use of also large, medium-sized anti-submarine helicopters even more handy, but their own lack of functions is entirely possible rely on continuous improvement, modification, and rational use of anti-submarine tactics to carry out to make up. I firmly believe that, even in the next generation of medium-sized anti-submarine helicopters in service, the straight one Z-9C will still be in the Chinese Navy's carrier-based anti-submarine forces occupy an important seat.

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Special report: China's carrier-based fly-by-wire jet aircraft flight in the Varyag

With China's "large surface combat ship," began approaching, who will become China's first fixed-wing carrier-based trainer has become a massive numbers of visitors concerns. In fact, this problem has been quietly resolved - most suitable for the Chinese carrier's trainer jet, is Hongdu L-15.

China's aviation industry can provide to the Chinese trainer aircraft carrier of choice very few options currently available for only eight coaches, coaches, 9, FC1, and L-15.

Eight low-altitude performance, a good coach, taking off and landing distance is short, manageability in hydraulic models are also considered good, but its design too early, without considering the demand on the aircraft carrier, body structure, strength enough room for modification. Its single, hydraulic characteristics and objectives of the carrier-based fighter aircraft flying a great distance. The possibility of its last ship was the first eliminated.

Coach 9 from the FT-7 modifications from high-altitude high-speed performance, low-altitude low-speed performance is poor, as a land-based third-generation advanced fighter trainer aircraft, can still be used, but the prototype FT-7 has always been "the most not suitable for flight "The models, teachers are difficult to master, although the change on both sides of the intake and double-delta wing, but on the ship when the low-altitude low-speed control performance is limited, depending on the next difficulty. Land-based runways is 2000 meters, the aircraft carrier landing runway, a short 100 meters, the aircraft but also the rise of the ship, the front and rear seat 9 coaches could not see the runway, followed by feeling of flying on the ship is very risky. Similarly, it is its single, hydraulic flight characteristics and objectives of the carrier-based fighter has a great distance, thus trained pilots to go through a lengthy two-seat target machine modification training, a great waste of time and money. L-15 design is to adopt a beginning serial two-seater design, the rear 30 cm higher than the front seat, and the two-seater single-seat fighter to change compared to the rear field of vision was good at 6 °, the front seat even up to 16 °, which in the trainer in both domestic and foreign advanced level. China's use of aircraft carriers lack of experience, a good view of aircraft can significantly reduce the accident rate.

L-15 trainer aircraft is specially developed low cost (relative fighter), with a whole long life, suitable for short-haul flights, taking off and landing characteristics of frequent, and there is "rugged." China in the early nineties the introduction of three generations of aircraft from Russia Su-27SK, the Chinese Air Force has new equipment across the times. However, we also found that long-term with the two-seat Su-27UB training pilots, just "squat ups and downs of" sufficient injury to the body, while the Su-27SK / Su-27UB design is a large-scale fighting consumables, the body life of only about 3000 hours is used to make frequent ups and downs of short-haul flight training trainer, wasting enormous. In our equipment, the introduction of Su-27 after the flight took place excessive consumption of valuable life lessons.

The truth is that an aircraft carrier at sea in a very small high-risk airports shaking incessantly. The course of the world's ships are all a large number of crashes. If the rash with the two-seater advanced trainer aircraft carrier-based fighter to risk directly as training of ship undoubtedly inappropriate. When an aircraft carrier pilot training courses need to take off and land and infrastructure far exceeds the amount of training Air Force pilots, if an expensive two-seater fighter aircraft used to train, too expensive. It is worth noting that the land-based aircraft carrier loaded planes taking off and landing approach and a great difference. Land-based aircraft in the 23 km of straight track on their own take-off aircraft carrier containing machine is more than 100 meters of the deck by steel cables pull the wings wing root or with front-wheel traction bar grabbed violence thrown to (catapult take-off) , or the opening of afterburner "hit" springboard to fly (Yue-fei), in particular the former a great impact on the life of the aircraft. Land-based aircraft approach for a long period of decline in low-altitude small angle, in the 23 km-long runway there is still a "flat Gone with the Wind," the flight of the process, the final landing point as small as possible to "shoot down" the impact of the landing minimized to "press ahead." Small body and landing gear force. However, the aircraft carrier deck landing runway is often less than 200 meters, but also about rocking up and down, obviously, the aircraft carrier landing point set to be large, there will not be a "flat Gone with the Wind." Often people will look at the video found in the military, aircraft carrier ship method contains a "beat", down at a large angle, it is violently break on deck, and then rely on landing to block Sok Shenglayingzhuai stop. F/A18 Hornet carrier landing rate of decline of 6 m / s, is the real "beat" on the ship. Aircraft-carrying body and the landing gear must be strengthened, each time taking off and landing are the obvious damage to the structural life. Contains aircraft carrier landing training, life contained aircraft destroyed far more than land-based aircraft taking off and landing training.

Can be seen, only the rugged specialized trainer, is suitable for use as a trainer on the ship. Once the L-15 mass production, cost reduction after every hour of training costs will be lower than the target machine an order of magnitude. Is expected to increase training costs as low as 3-4 in thousands of dollars / hour (land-based type). Equipped with the right trainer, a large amount of valuable fighters freed for combat readiness and new tactics research, will bring very significant economic, readiness for combat.

L-15 also has an excellent three generations of fighter aircraft fly-by feature and part of Asia, transonic flight performance, we can better simulate the flight characteristics of a new generation of fighter aircraft. Capacity of its stable hover 6G, while the third-generation fighter is also the maximum is only 9G, fully capable of flight simulation to the general requirements. Its aerodynamic shape determines its low-altitude low-speed flight performance and stability, very good, very suitable for ship-borne aircraft taking off and landing requirements of low-speed flight. Its twin-engine characteristics, which can simulate single parking accident, the event is really the sea single accident, are better able to return to the vicinity of an aircraft carrier or landing parachute alternate airport.

L-15 has more than one design of the lift thrust-weight ratio and good performance, but also make it in medium, large carriers have to meet the flight and the ejection slide leaps off Shihai can carry enough fuel and payload training. The minimum take-off speed of 240 km / hour, the minimum take-off distance of 300 meters, the minimum landing distance of 400 meters. L-15 short take off and land a good ability to modifications on the ship taking off and landing room, no major changes in it. Similarly, as a light aircraft, L-15 aircraft carrier on the ease of use and carrying capacity are better than two-seat carrier-based fighter. Particularly in the design at the beginning, L-15 dual-fat means more than a single fat increased by 10% -15% of the structural weight and great shape of the resistance. If we adopt the FC1 fighter RD33 afterburning turbofan engine type, it means to extend the fuselage length (17.32 meters MiG-29 pilot, FC1 captain of 14.30 meters, L15 is only 12.27 meters). Now L-15 to shorten the overall length of the engine compartment as well, just to get on an aircraft carrier - as a carrier-based aircraft, five short stature can be cramped for space savings on the flight deck.

L-15 in the country's first on the initial design used in the engine Full Authority Digital Control System (FADEC). Before the aircraft engine throttle operation most have some limitations, different height, speed may have different restrictions, there are some special conditions, such as restrictions on the engine when the high angle of attack. Landing in a complex tense flight, in general, pilots are often easy to forget some of the engine restrictions, misuse is likely to bring the air parking and other serious consequences. FADEC for the pilot to lift the emergence of the ideological burden, to reduce pilot fatigue and reduce errors. FADEC system uses a computer to monitor and adjust the engine to maintain optimum engine work, and at the same time to provide a safe diagnostic and inspection. FADEC technology has been widely used in civil aircraft, the future of new fighter will also be used in all FADEC control technology.

L-15 engine compartment below the "big off Cap" design, can be very simple to open repair, which is cramped in a small aircraft carrier on the commissioning, maintenance particularly convenient. Good maintenance feature allows L-15 can achieve a very high attendance. L-15 has an outstanding expertise: up to 4 hours of blank time. Blank means that can reduce the length of time set to take off the oil also has a very good left blank time for a take-off also means that more subjects can be trained to reduce the rise and fall times increase economy. Aircraft carrier often deliberately set out to reduce fuel load and save take-off weight easy to take off, but also frequently encountered "aerial line" to wait for landing conditions, as when the L15 could easily circled the deck, leaving the runway and other aircraft to land urgently needed. Long blank time for the L-15 in the carrier have a better user flexibility. L-15 before the forward landing gear incorporated into the nose and main landing gear kneeling flinching incorporated into the body, this design allows front and rear landing gear have left room for strengthening the transformation, but also under the wings of liberated space. In the future, whether by cable or a front-wheel traction catapult ejection traction, are convenient. The strengthened structure, then, can adapt to the aircraft carrier takeoff and landing gross requirements.

In addition, User request to change FC1 seat on the ship. FC1 fighter with a good low-altitude performance, three-axis four-redundant fly-by at low altitude performance make it a very good result of the planned mass production, its costs can also be diluted. It would have been thrust-weight ratio is small, the body interior space is relatively small, as a single-seat fighter to meet the needs of the future to increase the resistance of two-seat modification to increase the carrier landing equipment, and strengthening the structural strength to bring the weight, and make these issues more prominent , the required changes in volume over. It does not change any value and technical feasibility.

L-15 currently plaguing the biggest problem is the engine. As a carrier-based aircraft carrier training aircraft, L-15 demand is much less than the air force, naval land-based trainer, the engine can not be made in the issue is not so serious: a limited number of equipment, as long as the appropriate accumulation of a number of spare engines can deal with. Only because the production volume is small, it will be the cost of abnormal high, but can still afford. With the future, AI-222-25F turbofan localization after 11 were expedited, and catch up with the ship, it is probably too late. With the L-15 on the ship, China will usher in the first carrier-based fixed-wing trainer. It can simulate the third-generation fighter aircraft took off, Landing, but also simulate long-range raid on the ship-to-ground attack, air combat, is a true multi-purpose carrier-based trainer.

Monday, December 14, 2009

Aircraft carrier in a few years; Type-095 nuclear submarine and Type-071A amphibious ship under construction

Naval Strategy

If the construction Type-052B/C, and Type-054, Type-039 as represented by the beginning of the 21st century is the Navy's major facelift a few years of the second wave, then, it now appears that the modernization process is far from over and completed. Seemingly quiet 2009, but hidden in the choppy great development, of which the water carrier represented by the development of major weapons is clearly a top priority. Back in the eighties, the People's Navy had a three-step development strategy plan, from the ocean go by way of large blocks of flying submarine fleet, with plans to build aircraft carrier battle groups by 2050, it is from yellow to blue water, water. Now it seems as the economy and overall national strength of the sharp increase, this goal have gone up, optimism seems in 2020, that is thirty years ahead of schedule on the previous three-step strategy can be achieved. This change is a typical example of the need to create the market, the economy is the explosive expansion of China has become a black hole to absorb the world's resources on the attachment of boundless world trade expansion, while the protection of the marine interests and rights of the People's Navy duty. Escort the Gulf of Aden, but is just a start, blew the horn went overseas in the Navy.

However, such a thing in the future will be more, will be more difficult for us to attach great importance to the two routes, one is from China's breakthroughs in two offshore islands into the eastern Pacific with direct access to the Americas, and the other one is through from the After China's Nansha Islands and the coastal waters of Malacca, through the Indian Ocean to Africa. Neighboring countries have territorial disputes, India and Japan, two major countries in the United States, under both fed egg on behalf of hostility, low-intensity conflict or even be transformed into a battle. Obviously to deal with such threats, there is no aircraft carrier task force has absolutely does not work, after all, the pirates, but a minor Bale. In 2009, the occasion of National Day 60 years, the aircraft carrier production is undoubtedly the most exciting top priority, the author, and Zhongwei the same manner, infinitely User expectations.

Of course, such a change in naval strategy in advance, it is very natural to tear down a wave on the People's Navy had to erase the old shy, generous to stand before the world's navies. In April between the navy for 60 years at sea, Qingdao, Review, and an international perspective and ship one is a successful public appearance, loud oath: The Chinese Navy is no longer the sick man of Asia, and ocean macrocosm, and China catches up from behind.


Water large aircraft carriers and submarines in the Navy ordnance within the dust has finally landed in controversy for many years, and many years of development and the development of aircraft carriers and finally take a familiar down the pedicle.

Runs almost every morning for years, frustrating, basically complete the interior Varyag finally moved into the ship's dock, the Navy have speculated that it is the beginning of the power system outside the last renovation in preparation for the sea trial. However, there is no incentive system and the host does not matter, because the full capacity of the domestic carrier is necessary, and after this exotic is not a final product.

Jiangnan Changxing Island shipyard on the 3rd fully completed and successfully passed the acceptance, made the first generation of conventionally-powered aircraft carrier, the first ship will begin construction of this aircraft carrier in August on board Taiwan is no longer empty, will finally become a reality eye-summer. The big guy will be 6 million tons of displacement, two power plants, steam turbine first, and then follow-up of nuclear power in general the traditional layout of the two groups will be deployed in a good showing catapult bow, carrier-based aircraft in the 20-30 between Mao goods first, and then made in China replaced. If and Varyag closer, the Navy should have mental preparation, in fact quite normal. Carrier will not only put into operation in the south, the ship will be outdone.

Amphibious assault ship

Type-071 occurred, everyone was reconciled to this, looking forward to the deck of the amphibious assault ship straight appearance, this expectation is not without reason, even a small landing craft ship into an island of Type-074 can be biased, at nearly 20,000 tons of the Type-071 engage in a flat above the deck Type-071A is also a smooth growth of the wind mass Hudong China Group is the first ship built 999, the author, and the Navt will wait and see a little flat. More or less have the potential carrier of flavor.

This little guy will be equipped with a variety of future helicopter, the maintenance of maritime rights and interests surrounding the use of a direct, especially in Japan, South Korea, China and the ASEAN Zhou, and even the cross-strait problems have a considerable deterrent to the small flat amphibious assault ship as the core of the amphibious assault task force has, in the South China Sea will be much to offer, can be used as the main recovery of the Nansha Islands.

Destroyer and Frigate

The Navy have also seen Whampoa and retaining the two shipbuilding bases in the 054 East Recently there have been four appearances, the whole plan should also double, after all, this ship is more mature, and is one of the most mature design of tonnage, and no reason for the small of multiple-tried. But I still look forward to all-electric-propelled anti-submarine subtype appear? This does not, the recent Vietnam, bought six Kilo, a real danger of ah, China have proof. It is interesting that a large surface vessels have largely been in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Dalian arranged, especially the first two.

Type-052 from B to C, but two types of four, traces of the transition is still very clear, after a trial of the Navy a few years later, starting this year Type-052D on the logical, and the tonnage will be improved, military preparations better, combat capability will be fully than modern, almost equal to Burke, a carrier task force has a major role. This level is no longer small-batch trial production of small orders, but rather a double-digit orders for as many as three major fleets have taken everybody. South to take care of two, it is more difficult, and the new Type-052D such a large batch, several shipyards Battle of the case Type-051 can be repeated, the author estimates that is the Yangtze River, Huangpu, and ship 3. Though not so large as before, but it will be enough for some people really excited.


Type-093 and Type-094 two types of strategic nuclear submarines has finally been officially disclosed, apparently from the outside, somewhat disappointing, but China have always traditional, pre-generation research, development and production of a generation the practice of a generation is a clear demonstration of the Type-095 and Type-096 of the development and put into operation at hand, and although they have historically been of strategic weapons, dressed in a mysterious veil, less information is even more smoke and mirrors, elusive, but the span from development point of view, is that these two years should also be made of the first boat opened . 719 of the new generation of nuclear submarine in order to really satisfy the escort carrier and the country's future deterrence needs, review, Types 093 and 094, but is a summary of Types 091 and 092 and improve fills the typical role of linking the transition. There is also a concern that, in addition Huludao, the south will join the ranks of manufacturing nuclear submarines come from? After all, a few years ago south of the resumption of manufacture of conventional submarines, but also the quality of its construction more than hearsay arms ship product, the latter to accelerate and decelerate ah. There is also a rumor that government dig out of money, together with the Lao Maozai the next generation of nuclear submarines, and it is not known how true or false, let the future of the facts to be proven.

Type-039 conventional submarines for some time will also be main product, to improve and enhance comprehensive and will be enormous, 701 will not idle, according to some public official information and pictures, suppose a revolutionary new generation of Type-041 submarines will also be under development. There are rumors that the new conventional submarines will be unveiled next year, I do not know Types 039 or 041 changes, the author Here we've eagerly looked forward to a new low and smooth Wai shell to emerge to replace the stereotypical tall and mighty. After all these years, the former Soviet Union or the CIS designers in our design and development of underwater weapons to help should also bear fruit.

Type-095 is being built, the first built in the 2, Type-096 estimated in the second half, it will enter the construction phase!

Combat Aircraft

Frankly, the relative surface and underwater vessels of considerable progress, Naval Air Force combat aircraft development becomes a snail crawl, and the most recent years, in addition to JH-7 and SU-30 outside, there is not much difference, headache medicine head-gap, to seek help at the last moment heavy flavor. Tsat Lord and the Lord Ba or the main force of the army, enough shame in the 21st century has. With the aircraft carrier to join the future, the Navy Air Force needed an organizational structure, major surgery, shore-based forces and carrier-based forces to refine, the former is assigned to the Air Force, in order to reduce the burden on the Navy?

Naval Air Force should be a maritime unit. So that there is a major problem - carrier-based fighter, at present there to see domestic and imported competition, for our doubt about the things China always have to adhere to the traditional walking on two legs the way, from this sense, Machine will definitely be ordering, and the other party is also pressing other rice on Komsomolsk because of China's orders are not discontinued. Right made in China, because the level into the fly to be more focused on the development of four generations of machines and improving the J-10 and dragons, Shen fly on the 11th look for Laomao Zi Su-33 imitation made the development of carrier-based aircraft would become the Kunlun Miao hill one moment, only a race against time Bale. Other matching models, anti-submarine aircraft, AWACS, etc., can only be slowly save from scratch, and, after all, not a bite to eat a fat man. External cooperation is indispensable, after all, China have the equipment are two smear one badly in need of first-hand experience and information. Comparison of Japan and India-- China are too different in this respect.

Friday, December 11, 2009

China's strong distribution in the space chessboard - Perspectives on Sino-US anti-satellite weapons competition

Air Force officials generally agreed that the space is the United States "the most lethal weakness" In fact, the United States has been reduced to "taking space" country. In the coming new kind of war, the United States this kind of "military power" is likely to be not very superior opponents "hijacked."

    If we say that this century will be staged in a war between major powers, then it may no longer be as before, from the ground and air explosions to start, but will silently began in space, the kinetic energy weapons and laser weapons, radiation interception. China is vigorously developing anti-satellite weapons have pairs of future U.S. military strategy in the Pacific region have a significant impact. Many of America's strategic plans have even worried about the view that, if not maintain adequate vigilance against the United States will encounter in space again, "Pearl Harbor", the United States in the information age has evolved into an absolute advantage will follow the industrial age disadvantage. Thus, with the development of China's increasingly sophisticated anti-satellite weapons, the United States will actively develop a means of deterrence against the anti-satellite weapons, and the next generation of space technology, which will no doubt lead the field in the space of a "Great Game."

    Chinese anti-satellite weapons development can not be belittled

   Give priority to developing anti-satellite weapons, the PLA's history can be traced back to the early 90s of the last century. In 2000 the U.S. Department of Defense issued its annual China military power report, first disclosed that the PLA is developing helicopter-style anti-satellite missile, saying it is only weaken the U.S. military in space, China has taken the initiative in a small part of the initiative. Subsequent developments seem to validate the accuracy of the judgments. According to media reports, beginning in 2004, the PLA has conducted three helicopter-type anti-satellite weapons test, and eventually in the January 11, 2007 to the fourth test of success, has been shot down an obsolete weather satellite . In this test, China's aviation engineers have conducted numerous anti-satellite weapon simulations, and to the development of "space interceptors," the name of the successful use of solid-fuel rocket will be weighing about 100 kg payload along a specific orbit into space.

    China's helicopter-type kinetic kill vehicle into space launch vehicle, probably in the DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile based on the improvements made as a self-propelled four solid-fuel rocket with a range of about 1000 meters in the 1700 ~ 2500 between. U.S. intelligence agencies called the SC-19 anti-satellite missile may be a "pioneer" -1 (KT-1) or "pioneer" -1 type a new solid-fuel rocket variants. Although the Chinese side said that KT-1 is mainly used for launching small commercial satellites, but in fact the project started early to determine the priority to meet the military needs, "to accelerate the pace of development of China's space weapons." This means of delivery, Earth-based radar guidance system has been supporting, and the other in China, according to unconfirmed sources, such ASAT kinetic kill vehicle is used in improved HQ-19 missile warhead. HQ-19 missile is Russia's most advanced S-400 surface to air missile (NATO code name SA-21 "Growler"), the Chinese version. The missile was fired from 30 meters height of the cold, after starting the ignition of solid fuel engine, in-flight use of the initial and intermediate stages of correction with a radio-inertial guidance, to intercept targets in the final guidance to the initiative. Involved in anti-satellite weapons, the PLA Air Force, the project engineers had put forward the specific reference Russia's most advanced air defense technology, crack anti-satellite project in the development of a number of problems. However, a higher level of national R & D projects will also be infrared seeker guidance system research and development as a priority. Therefore, the Chinese ASAT kinetic kill vehicle guidance system may be both the use of Doppler radar, are also equipped with infrared seeker.

   The long-term focus on military issues, according to a news website revealed that the Chinese People's Liberation Army has deployed as many as 40 helicopter-style anti-satellite missile. In addition, China imported from Russia that can be equipped with eight battalions of S-300PMU2 air missile systems. These missiles have a certain degree of ballistic missile interceptors, slightly modified to also be used to intercept satellite. Some unconfirmed reports also said that China's military, China's integrated air and space defense system in the development of increasing interest, emphasizing anti-aircraft missile systems to seek control of space. Such a system may be related to the U.S. military's "Standard Missile-3" project is somewhat similar. "Standard Missile-3" is a sea-based theater missile defense system the United States an important part, for the intercept incoming ballistic missiles, anti-satellite weapons involved in the project of the Chinese engineers were already conducted in-depth study of the missile.

    Chinese helicopter-style anti-satellite weapons development, the United States in low-Earth orbit camera surveillance satellites, electro-optical imaging satellites, synthetic aperture radar satellites and electronic intelligence satellites, and pose a serious threat. Strategic Defense experts say, as long as the deployment of 20 helicopter-type anti-satellite weapons, we can ensure the destruction of classified national security and space imaging systems rely mainly on a 6-7 opto-electronic reconnaissance imaging / synthetic aperture radar satellites; and Ruozai to deploy 20 more pieces of helicopter-type anti-satellite weapons, you can ensure that the destruction of all three satellites from the satellite group of the four common-rail seat, so that the loss of which the lock-enemy the United States Navy warships and land-based air defense system means, will not be able to use -the-horizon satellite-guided missile attack these targets. Therefore, these opto-electronic reconnaissance imaging / synthetic aperture radar / electronic intelligence satellites are likely to become China's anti-satellite weapons, targets, if it had been hit on the beginning of the conflict, then to the United States is a very heavy blow.

   In addition to the successful test of the helicopter type to obtain kinetic energy interceptors, China's helicopter-style anti-satellite weapons could also equipped with electromagnetic pulse (nuclear or non-nuclear) warhead. People's Liberation Army is also committed to providing its anti-ship ballistic missile warheads in a similar research and development projects, both the technology used is also similar. Once the system is operational deployment of such weapons, will the United States a large number of in low-Earth orbit and high elliptical orbit of the military and civilian satellites pose a serious threat. China may think that this approach can effectively deal with the recent deployment of U.S. missile defense-related infrared early warning satellites, so as to ensure an effective nuclear deterrent.

    However, in view of improving the DF-21 medium-range ballistic missiles from the vehicle, its range can not reach the earth's surface at a distance over 35,000 km of low-inclination equatorial orbit and geostationary-orbiting satellites, which rely heavily on the U.S. most of the military communications satellites, missile warning satellites and electronic reconnaissance satellites, etc. for running in these areas, it is reported that China is JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missiles on the basis of developing a submarine-launched anti-satellite vehicle. JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, China's new generation of major equipment, "Jin"-class ballistic missile nuclear submarines, the final number may reach 20 construction. U.S. Defense Department assessment ,2009-2010, said there will be five "Jin"-class nuclear submarine with an initial operational capability.

    Taking into account the equatorial orbits of the geostationary orbit and the distance between the Earth's surface far exceeds the JL-2 missile range, coupled with China's radar satellite tracking capability is still relatively limited, short-term Chinese anti-satellite weapons, yet can not run on the track U.S. main military communications, early warning and electronic reconnaissance satellites pose a threat. However, there are unconfirmed reports that China is DF-25 medium-range ballistic missile based on the development of an improved launch vehicle and ultimately the possibility of using DF-31 medium-range / intercontinental ballistic missile technology increase the first-stage rocket motor thrust, and can lock the United States use of geostationary satellites of advanced guidance system. At the same time, China is also developing other could easily threaten the United States geostationary orbit satellite weapons technology, such as RF interference, network warfare, or laser weapon system.

    China has been vigorously developing directed energy weapons systems, especially ground-based laser systems, and to deal with the United States, with its satellites. In August 2006 to 10 months, China has on several occasions to use high-energy ground-based laser systems, "blinding" or "exposure" through China over the U.S. spy satellite. It is reported that this may be China's anti-satellite weapons test; it may be the use of relatively low energy of the laser ranging device, an attempt to accurate determination of the U.S. satellite's orbit for its anti-satellite weapons, lock the target service.

    There is a perception that China's air-launched on a regular basis to a strong laser, indicating that he possesses the potential to paralyze the U.S. reconnaissance satellites. U.S. Department of Defense officials also said, "They let us see them a laser, it seems that you want to intimidate us." Besides, according to a news web site reports that China may already be in its northwest region, most likely less susceptible to electrical interference in Xinjiang Tianshan days for at least the deployment of a very large area, "anti-satellite laser gun."

    In addition, China has also been committed to the development (some have already deployed) network warfare capability to invade the U.S. space control center system; the development of common-rail paralyze the enemy ASAT weapons to a secret satellite; the development of radio-frequency weapons, to disrupt enemy satellite signals; and the development of high-energy microwave weapons trying to destroy the satellite from the ground. Some of these weapons systems research and development has been more than a decade, such as network warfare and laser weapons programs had been very mature. As for the common-rail anti-satellite weapons development, China carried out in September last year, the "Shenzhou VII" manned space flight, astronauts spacewalk mission, and autonomous flight after the first 31 laps from the top of the orbital module in space accompanied by the release of a flight of small satellites, indicating that China has mastered the use of common-rail a secret reconnaissance satellite, or even attack enemy satellite technology. Of particular note is that with flying small satellites had only 25 kilometers from the international space station where speeding and over, this move is very close to the satellite launch of the mock attacks. In the short term, China is likely to take advantage of this technology from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in micro-satellite to serve as a common-rail anti-satellite weapons to attack in the United States geostationary orbit satellites. In the long run, this anti-satellite weapons are also expected to achieve mobile launchers on land. Obviously, the U.S. space operations, as well as almost all modern means of warfare the U.S. military, China's massive anti-satellite weapons program poses a clear challenge to the United States can not but arouse a high degree of vigilance, especially in the United States rely heavily on space-based facilities Army in the Pacific theater seriously.

    Space: America's "most vulnerable soft rib"

    In the U.S. view, China is rapidly growing as a space-age as a superpower. China has no doubt changed by pilot action of the past, the United States to dominate the leading edge of space, and since the end of the Cold War posture of international space cooperation. China's anti-satellite weapons would be a huge constellation of satellites the United States the only threat facing seat. Currently, the U.S. already has nearly 270 military satellites, as well as perform a variety of military missions of the hundreds of satellites for civilian, commercial, as well as dual-use satellites. Although the U.S. military space force composition data has not been made public, but a number of public information also can be inferred clues:

    Opto-electronic reconnaissance imaging satellites to collect higher resolution image information has been reported that the United States has launched three weighing 15 tons each, a modified "Keyhole" KH-12 optical imaging reconnaissance satellite. The satellite in low Earth orbit, you can shoot wide with only a few centimeters of the target image. In addition, in order to increase the number of existing image intelligence platform, the United States may have been fired code-named "hazy" and KH-12 Improved stealth satellite. The stealth satellites can escape the enemy's detection and tracking. And with the KH-12 and other national security satellite platform, "opaque" satellite (reported to have fired two, choose the third satellite will be launched this year) is also part of the performance of a nuclear war can be carried out very strong spacecraft.

    Synthetic aperture radar satellites the United States currently has three, each weighs 15 tons of "Lacrosse / Onyx" synthetic aperture radar imaging satellite in low Earth orbit can be all-weather target shooting in the dark with a resolution of no more than 2 meters. Other reports said the satellite can also be taken to a certain depth underground or underwater target image.

    In addition to signals intelligence satellite imagery intelligence satellites, the U.S. military has also relied heavily on signals intelligence satellites. According to reports, the U.S. currently has three large-scale "consultant / Orion" satellite runs on from the Earth's surface nearly 3.6 million km of Earth in geostationary orbit, and not far from communication satellites, you can collect 100 meters in diameter parabolic antenna radio radio signals emitted .

    Similarly, missile warning satellites in geostationary orbit were 4-5, "Defense Support Program" satellites, which carry infrared sensors capable of detecting worldwide missile launches and nuclear explosions, and early warning in advance. "Defense Support Program" satellites in the 1991 Gulf War displayed their ability to detect the "Scud" missile launches, and in time for the U.S. coalition forces, as well as the densely populated central areas to provide early warning. In addition, the satellite is also able to detect real-time short-range ballistic missile launches.

    Communications satellites to ensure the confidentiality of peacetime and wartime military communications, the United States in the early 80s of the last century began a military satellite communications systems engineering, namely, "Military Star" system for a large number of users, especially the military provide real-time, confidential and anti-jamming communications services, communications beam global coverage. There are also nine "national defense satellite communications system," -3 run in the geostationary orbit, could give priority to provide communications support for command and control department.

    GPS Global Positioning Satellite United States is currently a total of 24 (plus spare satellite) global positioning satellite has been operating at a distance of about 2 million km of Earth in the Earth's orbit, able to provide the U.S. military and civilian users worldwide coverage of the high-precision navigation, positioning, speed, time and other information. The satellite could help the Allies through the uninhabited desert; guide "joint direct attack munitions" precision bombing enemy targets, while try to reduce collateral damage caused by one's own side.

    In short, it is the comprehensive utilization of these space-based facilities only to make the U.S. military has a vital intelligence gathering, security, communications, mobile navigation, missile guidance, weather forecasting, as well as critical missile warning and missile defense capabilities to enable U.S. military in modern war, an unrivaled advantage of information technology, and further boost the U.S. military transformation. According to statistics, in 2003 the Iraq war, the U.S. military, 68% of the satellite-guided munitions used, and in the 1991 Gulf War, satellite-guided munitions accounted for only 10%.

    An Air Force officer who is proud to say, with an advanced and powerful satellite technology, the United States no longer have to harsh environments in the dense fog of battle, but only in the "e-cloud" in the attack. However, because the U.S. military is still four-fifths of the data to be transmitted via commercial satellites, and is now only a "Global Hawk" unmanned aerial reconnaissance missions over the Middle East occupied by the data transmission bandwidth, which is equivalent in 1991 as a whole the bandwidth used during the Gulf War several times, therefore, Air Force officials generally agreed that the space is the United States "the most fatal weakness." U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center commander, General Michael Hammer, who in January 2007 on China's anti-satellite weapons test pointed out that "once they achieve asymmetric advantage in space, and our war machine will be falling back from the information age to the industrial era - military power compared to the opponent side will tilt. " Many experts also believe that not only the U.S. military, even the U.S. economy, as well as the global economy has begun to excessive reliance on space systems. Their view, in fact, the United States has been reduced to "taking space" country, their way of life and space satellites to provide the various functions are inseparable.

    The U.S. military from the late 90 century and the beginning of this century in a series of simulations of war have verified the above deduction point of view. Closely involved in a number of space experts said that such exercises, these exercises revealed the U.S. political and economic circles have largely ignored a fatal problem, the United States suffered losses when the space infrastructure, not only immediately affect the U.S. economy, social and of national security, but also spread throughout the world. The experts further noted that, in the new kind of war, the United States this kind of "military power" is likely to be not very superior opponents "hijacked." These concerns them, apparently with the Chinese anti-satellite weapons test and its possible future Sino-US conflict, the use of the. Recently by the U.S. Pacific Air Force, the "Pacific Vision" simulation exercise, also shows the Air Force is highly dependent on the commercial satellite channels, as well as network and radar, are vulnerable to attack by China.

    In view of the U.S. military's growing dependence on space systems, future U.S. forces in any military intervention in the Taiwan Strait area action needs to have a reliable satellite system protection. In addition, the reconnaissance satellite will also help to reduce the two sides in a crisis situation because under the build-up and deployment of troops is likely to cause the risk of war. However, if U.S. satellites due to being pre-empted by the Chinese anti-satellite weapon attacks blinding, will make the conflict quickly escalated to a dangerous level. Long been concerned about the Taiwan issue two U.S. experts said, "If we say that will happen in the 21st century war between major powers, which in our view, the two countries will definitely be around the Taiwan Strait issue triggered war, but most likely to experience a terrorist escalation of the process. "The judge not only reflects the seriousness of this problem, but also reveals the Chinese turned to the deployment of anti-satellite weapons may have adverse effects.

    U.S. needs to remedy the situation

    Although China's helicopter-style anti-satellite weapons, which were unable to crack down on a run in the geostationary orbit or a high elliptical orbit of the majority of U.S. satellites, but there have been reports, GPS signals susceptible to interference cases to the Chinese side has also caused growing concern This prompted the U.S. to establish a number of spare ground station, in case the main GPS control centers suffer network attacks paralyzed. U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency have also introduced at least 11 shared monitoring stations in order to improve the GPS ground facilities. The United States also plans to deploy a new generation of stronger anti-interference ability GPS-III satellites. In addition, the United States is also able to transmit more data to develop a laser communication system, and even more difficult to interference than radio waves. The U.S. military will be expected to strengthen the threats of space surveillance and intelligence gathering capabilities, while enhancing the low-Earth orbit in the electro-optical reconnaissance imaging / synthetic aperture radar satellites "passive defense" capability. Other defensive measures include increasing the number of spare satellites, in order to avoid China's track and lock.

    Coincidentally, on the anti-satellite weapons test in China, just four months later, the U.S. Air Force on Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico set up a "response action Space Center", the main task is to face unexpected events in the United States, using a small help Thruster launch micro-satellites to replace the failed attacks in orbit satellites, increase the number of existing platforms. To date, the Center has launched into space two "tactical Star" -2 and "tactical Star" -3 micro-satellites. "Tactical Star" -2 fitted with low-power image sensors, and signals intelligence payload may be anywhere in the world compatible with common data relay station to communicate directly. "Tactical Star" -3 is applied hyperspectral imaging sensors, can identify the camouflage of ground targets, such as vehicles, buildings and mines. In addition, the U.S. Army Space and Missile Command in April this year, also received four each weighs four kilograms of nano-satellites, intended to use its low-Earth orbit satellite constellation deployment of nano-scale blocks, providing global coverage of the communication function. First nano-satellite is scheduled for launch into orbit in 2009, launch date by the end of June may have been identified, the remaining will be completed later fired. Traditional satellite deployment and time-consuming up to several years, while expenses enormous, but nano-satellite products can be deployed within a year, and the stars of the cost of each no more than 100 million U.S. dollars.

    U.S. Air Force is also alleged to invest heavily in development of the performance of supersonic stealth unmanned aerial vehicles. The aircraft in flight speed, altitude, stealth performance and endurance, etc., are very well compensate for the R & D process may be slow or have been a result of anti-satellite weapons to attack satellites gap. In addition, the U.S. Air Force has been deployed in high elliptical orbit of the two space infrared system satellites, and also plans to deploy third satellite later this year. This satellite location in the running to nearly the speed rapidly, China is difficult to capture them. The satellite provides a revolutionary early warning system, according to the tail engine jet flame characteristics, keen to find and lock on the mobile missile launchers, missile defense and thus can play a key role.

    To enhance the anti-Chinese anti-satellite weapons system, a deterrent, the United States is also seeking to use the "global real blow" to the Chinese anti-satellite weapons and attacks in retaliation, for example, a modified non-nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles; with a "bunker bomb" stealth bomber ; In addition, from a modified "Ohio"-class nuclear submarine-launched high-speed long-range cruise missiles, but also to quickly crack down on Chinese anti-satellite missile launch site. The above-mentioned strategic adjustment in the U.S., the Pacific Ocean plays a key role in Guam. Guam is currently engaged in massive construction of military facilities, from the perspective of the fight against anti-satellite weapons, possibly including "Global Hawk" unmanned aerial vehicles, B-2 stealth bombers, fast-attack submarines, cruise missiles, submarines, and an aircraft carrier battle groups Zhu Bo and support facilities. Is particularly worth mentioning is that the U.S. Navy deployed two missile submarines in the Pacific can be equipped with 154 cruise missiles against Chinese anti-satellite weapons, launch sites, and possible future with a greater payload and a new generation of supersonic super sonic cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. This converted submarines to launch in China's coastal areas up to 400 days of continuous patrol base in Guam during the period can be a brief 21-day break in order to rotate the crew, maintenance and logistical support.

    Long-term point of view, the U.S. Air Force is developing a general-purpose aircraft or space plane, used a series of ultra-sonic projection of conventional weapons to fight against the enemy anti-satellite weapons. However, given the use of such weapons systems, nuclear tensions are likely to exacerbate the situation, the project's current development focus is primarily on a global scale or for the rapid delivery and deployment of space systems. In any case, the project with the U.S. Navy cruise missile submarines, and in the research, like many of the orbiter project will deal with the Chinese anti-satellite weapons in the future the growing threat of the formation of space to play an important role.